From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide Tunisian politician, president 1987–2011. He became prime minister in October 1987 and a month later deposed the president for life Habib Bourguiba in a bloodless coup.
From An African Biographical Dictionary Dr. Joseph Kwame Kyeretwi Boakye Danquah, a major nationalist figure and a leader of opposition during the presidency of Kwame Nkrumah, was also a scholar and intellectual.
1942–, South African political leader. Mbeki was Mandela's choice as his successor as leader of the ANC, and he became the country's second postapartheid president after the ANC's landslide win in 1999.
Egyptian army officer and political leader, first president of the republic of Egypt (1956–70). A pan-Arabist and advocate of Third-World unity, Nasser was one of the most important Arab leaders of the 20th century.
1909–72, African political leader, prime minister (1957–60) and president (1960–66) of Ghana. Under his leadership the Gold Coast achieved (1957) independence and, in 1960, became the Republic of Ghana.
From Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat, also known as Anwar el-Sadat and Anwar al-Sadat, was president of the Arab Republic of Egypt (1970-1981) and the “architect of a new Mideast.” Sadat was assassinated by Muslim fundamentalists within his own army on October 6, 1981.
Writer and critic, born in Cape Town, SW South Africa. The political situation in his native country provides him with the base from which to launch his allegories and fables, attacking colonialism and demythologizing historical and contemporary myths of imperialism.
From The Faber Companion to 20th Century Popular Music The creator of the Afrobeat style of music (in which African rhythms replaced American R&B and soul rhythms), Kuti was the most politically outspoken of the African musicians who found international success in the seventies and eighties.
From Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History Afrocentrism is an African American ideological and educational movement supporting and promulgating pride in peoples of African descent by locating the origins of black civilization in Egypt.
The Arab Spring is the wave of protests and revolutions throughout the Arab world, beginning in late 2010 and resulting in perhaps the most significant social change the region has seen in generations.
From Encyclopedia of Nationalism: Leaders, Movements, and Concepts Movement in Kenya of the late 1940s and 1950s, during the period of British colonial rule. Its intent was initially to bring about new government policies that would improve conditions for Africans in Kenya, and ultimately to end British colonial rule in the country.
From Dictionary of Race, Ethnicity & Culture The term ‘negritude’ was coined to emphasize the view that, apart from skin colour and other ‘Negroid’ physical features, there are other values and characteristics which typify individuals, or peoples, with black skin.
From Encyclopedia of Nationalism: Leaders, Movements, and Concepts Established in Addis Ababa in 1963, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) is a vehicle for collaboration and unity among African nations.
From Encyclopedia of African History Since 1945, Africa has witnessed a range of wars, beginning with independence struggles against the colonial powers that often merged into postcolonial power struggles and civil wars, while after 1960 there have also been a number of wars between African states.
From A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures Between 6 April and July 1994, 1 million Rwandan citizens were killed. The vast majority of these victims belonged to the Tutsi socio-ethnic group.
Means of producing immunity against pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, by the introduction of live, killed, or altered antigens that stimulate the body to produce antibodies against more dangerous forms.
From The Columbia Encyclopedia Literary works of the African continent. African literature consists of a body of work in different languages and various genres, ranging from oral literature to literature written in colonial languages (French, Portuguese, and English).
Provides an integrated and authoritative body of information about the political, cultural and economic contexts of postcolonial literatures that have their provenance in the major European Empires of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain as well as places like Latin America and the Philippines