If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title/name of the item you are citing instead. Follow the title/name of the item with the date of publication, and the continue with other citation details.
Note: an author/creator won't necessarily be a person's name. It may be an organization or corporation, for example Health Canada or a username on a site such a YouTube.
If no author or creator is provided, use a shortened version of the title where you'd normally put the author's last name.
If you're citing something which is part of a bigger work, like an article from a magazine, newspaper, journal or encyclopedia, or chapter or short story from a book, put the shortened title in quotation marks in your in-text citation.
Example, paraphrasing: ("A few words", 2014)
If you're citing an entire work, like a book, website, video, etc., italicize the shortened title in your in-text citation
Example, 'paraphrasing: (A few words, 2014)
If and only if an item is signed as being created by Anonymous, use "Anonymous" where you'd normally put the author's name.
Alphabetical Order in References List
When putting works in alphabetical order, ignore initial articles such as "the", "a", or "an". For example the title The best of Canada would be alphabetized as if it started with the word best instead of the word The
If the title begins with a number, alphabetize it as if the number was spelled out. For example the title 5 ways to succeed in business would be alphabetized under F as if it had started with the word Five.
Examples of citing works with no titles:
If no date is provided, use the initials n.d. where you would normally put the date.
Also use the initials n.d. if the date of content is difficult to determine, such as on a Wikipedia page.
Page numbers may not be provided for some items, such as online materials. If this is the case:
If a citation would normally include page numbers but none are provided, skip the page numbers in the citation.
In-Text Citation - Quoting Directly
When quoting directly in the text of your paper, you would normally include page numbers if they were given. If there are no page numbers given:
Occasionally an item may not have a title. If you are citing something with no identified title, write a description of the item placed in square brackets. Put this description in brackets where you'd normally put the title.
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