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AMA Citation Guide

AMA Style Guide Book and Quick Study Guide

AMA Quick Style Guides with Examples

AMA Style, Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)

This resource discusses references page formatting for the American Medical Association (AMA) style sheet. AMA was developed by the American Medical Association for the purpose of writing medical research.

References are found at the end of a manuscript and are titled “Reference List,” and each item should be listed in numerical order (two references should not be combined under a single reference number) as opposed to alphabetically. Additionally, each item should be single-spaced.

Sample Reference

AuthorLastname, FirstInitialMiddleInitial. Title in sentence case. Journal Title in Title Case. Year; volume(Issue#): PP-PP.

When writing up your references list, be sure to always include the last name and the first and middle initial of the authors without punctuation. However, do use a comma to separate more than one author in a single bibliographic group (e.g., Wheeler T, Watkins PJ).

 If the author's middle initial isn't available, omit it. The abbreviations "Jr" and "Sr" ("Junior" and "Senior") may follow authors' names when applicable (e.g., Jameson JJ Jr). Use Roman numerals to signify "2nd," "3rd," "4th," and so on (e.g., Doe JF III).

Use sentence case for all titles (capitalize only the first word of the title). Abbreviate and italicize names of journals according to the listing in the National Library of Medicine database

Additionally, each reference is divided with periods into bibliographic groups; each bibliographic group contains bibliographic elements, which may be separated using the following punctuation marks:

  • A comma: if the items are sub-elements of a bibliographic element or a set of closely related elements (e.g., the authors’ names).
  • A semicolon: if the elements in the bibliographic group are different (e.g., between the publisher’s name and the copyright year) or if there are multiple occurrences of logically related elements within a group; also, before volume identification data.
  • A colon: before the publisher’s name, between the title and the subtitle, and after a connective phrase (e.g., “In,” “Presented at”).

See the following examples:

1.  Wheeler T, Watkins PJ. Cardic denervation in diabetes. BMJ. 1973;4:584-586.
2. O'Keefe M, Coat S. Consulting parents on childhood obesity and implications for medical student learning. J Paediatr Child Health. 2009;45(10),573-576.

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