What Is a Long Quotation?
A quotation of more than 40 words.
Rules for Long Quotations
There are 4 rules that apply to long quotations that are different from regular quotations:
Example of a Long Quotation
At the end of Lord of the Flies the boys are struck with the realization of their behaviour:
The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. (Golding, 1960, p.186)
Sometimes you may want to make some modifications to the quote to fit your writing. Here are some APA rules when changing quotes:
Add the word [sic] after the error in the quotation to let your reader know the error was in the original source and is not your error.
If you would like to exclude some words from a quotation, replace the words you are not including with an ellipsis - ...
If you are adding words that are not part of the original quote, enclose the additional words in square brackets - [XYZ]
When you write information from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion as follows:
If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation, instead include the year of publication following his/her name:
Note: Although not required, APA encourages including the page number when paraphrasing if it will help the reader locate the information in a long text and distinguish between the information that is coming from you and the source.
Homeless individuals commonly come from families who are riddled with problems and marital disharmony, and are alienated from their parents. They have often been physically and even sexually abused, have relocated frequently, and many of them may be asked to leave home or are actually thrown out, or alternatively are placed in group homes or in foster care. They often have no one to care for them and no one knows them intimately.
Rokach, A. (2005). The causes of loneliness in homeless youth. The Journal of Psychology, 139, 469-480.
Example: Incorrect Paraphrasing
Example: Correct Paraphrasing
If your paraphrase is longer than one sentence, provide an in-text citation for the source at the beginning of the paraphrase. As long as it's clear that the paraphrase continues to the following sentences, you don't have to include in-text citations for the following sentences.
This is the first sentence of my paraphrase (Lastname, 2019). I continue to describe the author's idea. This is the last sentence of my paraphrase.
If your paraphrase continues to another paragraph and/or you include paraphrases from other sources within the paragraph, repeat the in-text citations for each.
This is a new paraphrase from my first source (Firstauthor, 2019). This information was taken from my second source which is a journal article (Secondauthor, 2019). I introduce another idea from my first source (Firstauthor, 2019).
Citing only once at the end of the paragraph isn't enough, as it doesn't clearly show where you started using information from another person's work or ideas. When you use a source more than once in a paragraph, technically you should cite the source each time.
This can be tricky though - you want your paper or assignment to flow nicely while while properly citing your sources. There is a way you can avoid having to write full in-text citations each and every time by adding a lead-in sentence to your paragraph, "narrative" style.
►Bad (Do Not Do This). In this paragraph, the citation occurs only at the end and reader does not know exactly when/where information comes from the source:
►Correct but Ugly. This paragraph is technically correct for APA, but it is difficult to read in large part because the in-text citations are intrusive and awkward:
►Good. These paragraphs are "APA correct" and easy to read. Note the reader knows exactly when/where information from the source is used:
Note: The above examples are adapted from Rasmussen College.
When you are citing two different sources that share the same author and year of publication, assign lowercase letters after the year of publication (a, b, c, etc.). Assign these letters according to which title comes first alphabetically. Use these letters in both in-text citations and the Reference list.
Paraphrasing content from first source by this author (Daristotle, 2015a). "Now I am quoting from the second source by the same author" (Daristotle, 2015b, p. 50).
Example Reference List entries:
Daristotle, J. (2015a). Name of book used as first source. Toronto, ON: Fancy Publisher.
Daristotle, J. (2015b). Title of book used as second source. Toronto, ON: Very Fancy Publisher.
If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. List the sources alphabetically by author's last name or first word used from the title if no author is given, in the same order they would appear on the References List.
(Bennett, 2015; Smith, 2014).
(Brock, 2016; "It Takes Two," 2015).
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