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MLA 9th Citation Guide

MLA Handbook Plus

What is MLA?

The STLCC Writing Center is your best source for citation help. use the examples in this guide to supplement the ones on the Writing Center website. 

MLA style was created by the Modern Language Association of America. It is a set of rules for publications, including research papers. There are two parts to MLA: In-text citations and the Works Cited list.

In MLA, you must cite sources that you have paraphrased, quoted or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places:

  1. In the body of your paper where you add a brief in-text citation.
  2. In the Works Cited list at the end of your paper where you give more complete information for the source.

The in-text citation points the reader to the full citation of the source in the Works Cited list. The Works Cited list is in alphabetical order. The in-text citation consists of the first part of the full citation, which is usually the author's last name, and the page number (if there is one) so that a reader can find the information in the source. 

MLA Handbook

This citation guide is based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (9th ed.).  A copy is available in each STLCC campus library. 

MLA Citations for AI

In March 2023, MLA provided guidance for citing responses from ChatGPT or output from another generative AI tool.

"Description of chat" prompt. Name of AI tool, version of AI tool, Company, Date of chat, URL.


"Examples of harm reduction initiatives" prompt. ChatGPT, 23 Mar. version, OpenAI, 4 Mar. 2023,

In-Text Citation Example:

("Examples of harm reduction")

If you create a shareable link to the chat transcript, include that instead of the tool's URL.

MLA also recommends acknowledging when you used the tool in a note or your text as well as verifying any sources or citations the tool supplies.


The STLCC Writing Center is your best source for citation help. This guide has been adapted by St. Louis Community College Libraries with the with the permission of Seneca College Libraries to provide further examples and resources. For information on the original guide from Seneca College Libraries, contact

Note: When copying this guide, please retain this box.

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

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